Summary: Positive Clinical Psychology

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Read the summary and the most important questions on Positive Clinical Psychology

  • 1 Week 1

  • 1.1.1 A guided self-help intervention in primary care to improve coping and mental health: an observational study.

  • What are the reasons for the development of a new self-help intervention? (2)

    1. Many people who require psychological treatment do not get it, and self-help interventions can reach more people whilst staying affordable and accessible
    2. Current self-help interventions often focus on one disorder, but recent emphasis has been on transdiagnostic factors
  • What are the characteristics of the intervention ''from symptoms to solutions''? (6)

    1. Structured, simple, and brief
    2. Focuses on coping and hence on self-efficacy
    3. Stepwise approach
    4. Stresses shared decision making
    5. Includes monitoring of treatment progress
    6. Uses therapist's guidance
  • In what way is the intervention structured, simple, and brief? (2)

    1. Explains mental disorders through the SLC-model
    2. Patient uses a manual with information and homework assignments
  • What is coping and why is focusing on it important?

    This entails behavioral and psychological strategies people employ to master, tolerate, or reduce stress. Coping is seen as a transdiagnostic factor that is associated with psychopathology.
  • What is the stepwise approach used in this intervention? (3)

    1. Shared problem definition and defining targets
    2. Behavior change
    3. Relapse prevention
  • In what way is shared decision-making stressed in the intervention?

    The patient and therapist discuss which components of the problem belong to which part of the SLC model. Afterwards they discuss which elements of the problem need modification and which strategies will serve to activate new coping behavior
  • In what way is monitoring the treatment progress useful in the intervention?

    Measurements before and during the course of the treatment of the features and severity of the symptoms and assessment of coping strategies can support mutual decision-making in ongoing therapy, and strengthen patient motivation & directedness to adhere to treatment.
  • Why is therapist guidance useful? (2)

    1. Essential for the success of a self-help treatment
    2. The therapist answers questions, monitors progress, enhances the patient's motivation, and encourages the use of the self-help booklet.
  • What are the results of the observational study on this self-help intervention? (3)

    1. Level of active and confronting coping style increased, while the level of avoidance and passive reaction coping style decreased
    2. Patients enlisted more social support and reassurance after the program
    3. More than 50% of the patients changed their coping style to another higher or lower level
  • What are the main findings from this study? (3)

    1. There was a significant mean improvement in mental health between treatment onset and the third session, as well as between the third session and the end of treatment
    2. The treatment uses less therapist time, which is why it might be a good addition (but: room for improvement)
    3. The coping strategies changed in line with the treatment aims, but it is unclear if this is a long-term improvement

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