13 questions on "brain perturbation that elucidate cognitive functions"

Name the perturbation methods most commonly used in cognitive neuroscience
  • Perturbation imposed by stroke, trauma or disease
  • Pharmacological perturbation
  • Perturbation by intracranial brain stimulation
  • Perturbation by extracranial brain stimulation
  • optogenetics
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How where perturbations first accomplished
Correlating a patient's signs, symptoms and behavior during life with the location of brain lesions discovered upon autopsy
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What are limitations of clinical-pathological correlation in humans
Brain damage is the result of many factors
There are many individual differences
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What are the two approaches for linking cognitive functions and neural processes
  • Brain is perturbed in some way and task performance on a  set of cognitive tasks is measured
  • neuromonitoring approach an experimenter manipulates a particular cognitive process in an experimental taks and measures the associated changes in brain activity.
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What are the downsides of making surgical lesions in animals
Training and assessment is more difficult and there are ethical concerns
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Which two forms do the pharmacological studies in humans have taken two main forms
  • Examine the influence of chronic drug use or abuse on cognitive processes.
  • Administer drugs in a  experimental setting
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What is the difference between agonists and antagonists
  • A agonists bind to and activate receptors in a manner similar to a neurotransmitter
  • a antagonist is where a drugs bind to and blocks receptors
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What is direct electrical stimulation
A way where electrodes are placed onto or into the brain of an animals.
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Name the two ways i which electrodes can be placed
  • Transiently; duration of the surgery
  • chronically; for a longer amount of time
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What is Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
A method where a magnetic field is made in a coil. Which creates a reversible brain lesion limited to the underlying area
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What is called when a series of TMS pulses are used to study cognitive processes
Repetitive tms (rTMS)
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What are the the drawbacks of using TMS
  • Affect a relatively large area, limiting anatomical resolution
  • transcranial stimulation can be delivered effective to only relatively superficial brain regions
  • concurrent stimulation of scalp and head muscles
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What are the two types of stimulation
  • Anodal (positive) stimulation is thought to increase the cortical excitability of the area being stimulated
  • Cathodal stimulation is thought to decrease the excitability 
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