13 questions on "brain perturbation that elucidate cognitive functions"

Name the perturbation methods most commonly used in cognitive neuroscience
  • Perturbation imposed by stroke, trauma or disease
  • Pharmacological perturbation
  • Perturbation by intracranial brain stimulation
  • Perturbation by extracranial brain stimulation
  • optogenetics
How where perturbations first accomplished
Correlating a patient's signs, symptoms and behavior during life with the location of brain lesions discovered upon autopsy
What are limitations of clinical-pathological correlation in humans
Brain damage is the result of many factors
There are many individual differences
What are the two approaches for linking cognitive functions and neural processes
  • Brain is perturbed in some way and task performance on a  set of cognitive tasks is measured
  • neuromonitoring approach an experimenter manipulates a particular cognitive process in an experimental taks and measures the associated changes in brain activity.
What are the downsides of making surgical lesions in animals
Training and assessment is more difficult and there are ethical concerns
Which two forms do the pharmacological studies in humans have taken two main forms
  • Examine the influence of chronic drug use or abuse on cognitive processes.
  • Administer drugs in a  experimental setting
What is the difference between agonists and antagonists
  • A agonists bind to and activate receptors in a manner similar to a neurotransmitter
  • a antagonist is where a drugs bind to and blocks receptors
What is direct electrical stimulation
A way where electrodes are placed onto or into the brain of an animals.
Name the two ways i which electrodes can be placed
  • Transiently; duration of the surgery
  • chronically; for a longer amount of time
What is Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
A method where a magnetic field is made in a coil. Which creates a reversible brain lesion limited to the underlying area
What is called when a series of TMS pulses are used to study cognitive processes
Repetitive tms (rTMS)
What are the the drawbacks of using TMS
  • Affect a relatively large area, limiting anatomical resolution
  • transcranial stimulation can be delivered effective to only relatively superficial brain regions
  • concurrent stimulation of scalp and head muscles
What are the two types of stimulation
  • Anodal (positive) stimulation is thought to increase the cortical excitability of the area being stimulated
  • Cathodal stimulation is thought to decrease the excitability 
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