Study material generic cover image

Summary Principles of Environmental Sciences

Course
- Principles of Environmental Sciences
- Uit de Weerd
- 2020 - 2021
- Open Universiteit
- Environmental Sciences
0 Flashcards & Notes
Scroll down to see the PDF preview!
PLEASE KNOW!!! There are just 0 flashcards and notes available for this material. This summary might not be complete. Please search similar or other summaries.
  • This summary
  • +380.000 other summaries
  • A unique study tool
  • A rehearsal system for this summary
  • Studycoaching with videos
Remember faster, study better. Scientifically proven.
Trustpilot Logo

A snapshot of the summary - Principles of Environmental Sciences

  • Chapter 7 General Principles

  • static equilibrium (section 7.8)
    A system is in static equilibrium when the processes in the system do not lead to organisational and structural change.
    Note: A box that is divided into two compartments, i.e. compartment A and B, which are separated by a semi‐permeable membrane is called in “static equilibrium” when the flow of chemical X from compartment A to B equals the flow from compartment B to A. In other words: the net transport of chemical X over the membrane is zero.
  • dynamic equilibrium (section 7.8)
    A system is in dynamic equilibrium when the processes in the system do not lead to organisational change, but do lead to structural change.
    Note: A bath that is filled by water from a tap but has an overflow, is called in “dynamic equilibrium” when the water level in the bath remains constant. In this case, the inflow of water into the bath equals the outflow. The difference with a system in “static equilibrium” is that the net transport over each individual transport route is not zero, but the overall transport over all routes taken together is zero.
  • Chapter 8 Specific Principles

  • Ecological modernisation (Section 8.4)
    Improving eco-efficiency.
  • Ecosystem goods (Section 8.4)
    Benefits that people obtain from ecosystems and are given monetary value in the marketplace, e.g. food and construction materials.
  • Ecosystem services (Section 8.4)
    Benefits that people obtain from ecosystems, include provisioning, regulating, and cultural services that directly affect people, and supporting services needed to maintain the other services.
  • Environmental levies (synonym of ecotaxation) (Section 8.4)
    Taxes imposed by a government on sources of pollution.
  • Environmental utilisation space (synonym of ecospace) (Section 8.4)
    The capacity of the environment to support human activities by regenerating renewable resources and absorbing waste. The boundaries of environmental utilization space are determined by the patterns and level of economic activity. A distributional element can be added by allocating ecospace at a national or per capita level, and is thus useful in illustrating present inequities.
  • Internalisation of external costs (Section 8.4)
    Accounting for both the short-term and the long-term external environmental costs into decision-making for economic and other development plans, programs and projects likely to affect the environment. This is the principle of the internalisation of external environmental costs. The rationale underlying the principle of internalisation of external environmental costs is that if the real value of the environment, and components of it, are reflected in the costs of using it, the environment will be sustainably used and managed and not exploited wastefully.
  • Natural capital (Section 8.4)
    An extension of the economic notion of capital (manufactured means of production) to environmental 'goods and services'. It refers to a stock (e.g., a forest) which produces a flow of goods (e.g., new trees) and services (e.g., carbon sequestration, erosion control, habitat). Natural capital can be divided into renewable and non-renewable; the level of flow of non-renewable resources (e.g. fossil fuels) is determined politically.
  • Polluter pays principle (Section 8.4)
    The principle holds that those who generate pollution and waste should bear the costs of containment, avoidance or abatement.
PLEASE KNOW!!! There are just 0 flashcards and notes available for this material. This summary might not be complete. Please search similar or other summaries.
Read the full summary
This summary. +380.000 other summaries. A unique study tool. A rehearsal system for this summary. Studycoaching with videos.