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Summary Principles Of Human Physiology.

- Cindy L Stanfield
ISBN-10 0321681827 ISBN-13 9780321681829
53 Flashcards & Notes
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A snapshot of the summary - Principles of human physiology. Author: Cindy L Stanfield ISBN: 9780321681829

  • 1 H18 Zenuwstelsel en zintuigen

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  • What are  nuclei (nucleus)?

    cell  bodies of neurons that are grouped together in  central  nervous  system

  • pathways,  tracs,  commisures

    bundles of axons

  • 3.4.1 ATP: The medium of energy exchange

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  • Through what reaction is ATP synthesized?

    With Pi = phosphor. 
  • What type of reaction is the formation of ATP?
    A phosphorylation reaction, because phosphor is added. 
  • What are the 2 basic processes through which ATP synthesis occurs and what are the reaction formulas?
    • Substrate-level phosphorylation:

                  

    • Oxidative phosphorylation:

                  
  • 3.4.2 ATP in action

  • Which energy is used to synthesize ATP and why?
    The energy derived from glucose oxidation, because it occurs spontaneously due to its negative energy change.
  • How many ATP is synthesized from one mole of glucose and give the formula?
    1 mole of glucose releases 686 kcal energy, and 7 kcal of energy is required to synthesize 1 mole of ATP. Therefore glycolysis of 1 mole of glucose releases enough energy to make 98 moles of ATP. However, only 1/3 of this amount (38) is actually synthesized.

  • 3.5.1 Glycolysis

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  • What is gylcolysis and give the formula?
    The splitting of sugar. Each glucose molecule (with 6 carbons) is broken down into 2 molecules of pyruvate containing 3 carbons each.

  • Is oxygen consumed during glycolysis?
    No, there is no oxygen consumed during glycolysis and therefore there is also no carbon dioxide produced.
  • 3.5.2 The Krebs cycle

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  • How many turns of the Krebs cycle are generated by the glycolysis of 1 glucose molecule?
    1 glucose molecule produces 2 pyruvate molecules and therefore also 2 acetyl CoA molecules through the linking step. 1 acetyl CoA molecule participates in 1 complete turn of the Krebs cycle. ==> the glycolysis of 1 glucose molecule leads to 2 complete turns in the Krebs cycle.
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