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Summary Psychological assessment

Course
- Psychological assessment
- 2020 - 2021
- Universiteit van Amsterdam
- Psychologie
247 Flashcards & Notes
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A snapshot of the summary - Psychological assessment

  • college 1

  • What do phrenology and physiognomy have in common?
    They are both operationalizations of the idea that the exterior, looks etc. Are an indication of a persons personality and intelligence.
  • How do we call a study that states that personality and intelligence can be determined from the shape of the skull, implying that the growth of certain brain parts causes the skull to take a certain shape?
    Phrenology
  • Give a timeline of psychological assessment
    • 2200 B.C. People were tested to determine their fitness to work for the Chinese emperor
    • Around 18th century: the outside is an indication of the inside, physiognomy, phrenology
    • Late 19th century: "copper era". Perception and response speed become indicators of intelligence. They were determined by machines hence the copper era
    • Early 20th century: first intelligence tests as we know them today
    • Early 20th century: Personality can be determined through projection. By letting people react to unstructured stimuli people will answer based on instinct which will show personality
  • What are some biases to watch out for in psychological assessment?
    • Blind spot bias
    • salience effect
    • contrast error
    • illusory correlation
    • confirmation bias
    • fundamental attribution bias
  • How do we call the tendency to overestimate the influence of dispositions (traits) and to underestimate the influence of situational factors (states, reaction to situation) in judging peoples behavior.
    The fundamental attribution bias
  • How do we call only search for and pay attention to information that is consistent with one's own conclusion; ignore or selectively interpret hypotheses, beliefs and conflicting information
    The confirmation bias
  • How do we call giving more weight to striking information than non‐striking information when drawing conclusions?
    The salience effect
  • How do we call a concept during a performance appraisal of a candidate where his/her valuation is impacted by the fact that the previous candidates were relatively good or bad. It is an error where a person sets a certain benchmark, which affects the appraisal of the candidate being interviewed.
    The contrast error
  • How do we call it when we perceive links between tests and own conclusion, which do not exist empirically?
    An illusory correlation
  • What are some solutions to defend yourself from bias?

    1. Awareness of the limitations of clinical judgment

    2. Include circumstances
    3. Think about verification and falsification
    4. Take specific instruments that are as reliable and
    (ecologically) valid as possible.
    5. Think about whether 1 instrument is sufficient.
    6. Stay critical
    7. Follow hypothesis testing model
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