Summary: Public Policy A New Introduction | 9781137573292 | Christoph Knill, et al
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Read the summary and the most important questions on Public Policy A New Introduction | 9781137573292 | Christoph Knill; Jale Tosun
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What are the two fundamental issues of the study of public policy?-
Policy variation: how are there differencesbetween public policies in differentsectors and countries?
Policychange: How or why are public policies remaining stable or changing over time?
1.1.1 Polity, Politics and Policy
What is the difference between polity, politics and policy?-
Polity: institutional structuresof a political system.
- Politics: political processes (e.g. Voting behavior).
- Policy: the content of policies, the analysis of the outputs of a political system.
1.1.2 Elements of Public policy
What are two fundamental elements of public policy?1. The
actionsof public actors
2. These actions focus on s
pecificissues (scope of activitiesis restricted).
What are the ways that public policy can be conceived?- as a problem-solving activity.
- as a means of exerting power.
1.2.1 Basic theoretical perspectives on public policies: rational process design, muddling through or just chance?
What are the three approaches of how public policies evolve?- Rationalist approach
- Incrementalist approach
- The garbage can model
How does the rationalist approach understand policy-making?It
prescribeshow policymakingin the idealworld would be organized and how it would/should evolve, the goal being: achieving optimal solutionsto the policy problems.
Fully rational decision-making process.
How does the incrementalist approach view policy-making?
Political actors, possessing differenttypes of information, interactwhich leads to a political result (public policy). The actorsneed to make concessions, therefore policy-makers primarily concentrateon aspectsthat are more technical(not as controversial).
Not an ideal , but a
realistic descriptionof how policy-makersarrive at those decisions.
makersonly have limited information, and the restrictionsof their mind. So, decision-makersapply their rationalityonly after having simplifiedthe choices available.
So you're looking for a
satisfactory solutionrather than an optimalone.
How does the garbage can model view policy-making?The involved actors within an organization go through the 'garbage' first and look for a suitable fix. The solutions develop independetly of problems.
A lot of solutions are produced but later discarded because of lack of problems.
1.2.2 Stages of the Policy Process
What are the stages of the policy cycle?1. Problem definition and agenda-setting
2. Policy formulation and adoption
4. Evaluation (with potential consequence of policy termination or reformulation).
The policy cycle is continuous and unending
Why use a different model?Tool to investigate the process of policy-making from different analytical angles.
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