# Summary: Quantitative Research Methods

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## Read the summary and the most important questions on Quantitative Research Methods

• ### 1.1 Lecture 1

This is a preview. There are 2 more flashcards available for chapter 1.1

• #### What is the difference between descriptive and inferential research?

Descriptive;
What questions,

• Interested in a quantitative answer:
‘How many students are enrolled in the premaster?’ Which program has the most students?

• Interested in a numerical change:
‘Are the numbers of premaster students in our university rising compared to last year?

Inferential;
Why questions,

• Test relationships:
‘What is the relation between studentsself-esteem and their average grade in the premaster?’

• Explain something:
‘What factors cause changes in student performance over time?
• #### Why do we need quantitative research?

• Provides us with a toolbox to study the world by the use of the scientific method
• Helps minimising cognitive assumptions (bias) that may distort our interpretation
• The state of prior research and/or topic may 'force' you to use quantitative methods
• Only way to establish causal relationships
• #### When do we need quantitative research?

When the state of prior theory and research is mature, or if it is intermediate, a hybrid form between quant and quali is advised.
• #### What is the simpson's paradox?

Simpson’s paradox refers to a phenomena whereby the association between a pair of variables (X, Y) reverses sign upon conditioning of a third variable, Zregardless of the value taken by Z.
• ### 1.2 The Effect - Chapter 1 - Designing Research

This is a preview. There are 3 more flashcards available for chapter 1.2

• #### What is quantitative empirical research?

Empirical research that uses quantitative measurements (numbers, usually). More data sets, fewer interviews.

• ### 2.2 The Effect - Chapter 2 - Research Questions

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• #### 2.1 What is a research question?What does it mean to have a question that can be answered?

That there is evidence in the world that, if found, would answer your question in a believable way.
It is not ambiguous, e.g. 'best movie'
• #### What does it mean to improve our understanding of how the world works?

It should tell you about something broader than the question itself, inform theory in some way.
• #### 2.2 Why start with a question?What is the difference between data mining and conducting research with a research question?

Data mining seeks patterns in the data, where quantitative research starts with a question and then dives into data to find answers.
• #### What are advantages of research through data mining?

Finding patterns and making predictions under stability (where the process does not change)
• #### What are the kinds of things that research through data mining is less good at?

Improving our understanding i.e. Helping improve theory, and it has a tendency to find false positives
(Sometimes seeing patterns in data can give us ideas for research questions)