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  • 1 Classical Conditioning

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  • Classical Conditioning Formula

    UCS - UCR 
    NS + UCS - UCR 
    CS - CR
  • What is stimulus discrimination?

    When the organism demonstrates the conditioned response only to the conditioned stimulus and not any other stimulus 
  • What is stimulus generalization?

    When an organism demonstrates the conditioned response to stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus
  • What is spontaneous recovery?


    Re-emergence of a previously extinguished conditioned response. For example, If days later the dog once more hears the bell, it is likely to salivate again.
  • What is rapid Reacquisition? Example

    The dog would re-learn the conditioned response more quickly than it did the first time after extinction
  • 2 Operant Conditioning

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  • What is positive reinforcement?

    The process whereby the presentation of a stimulus (a reward or pay-off) after behaviour makes the behaviour more likely to occur again
  • What is negative reinforcement?

    Elimination of an aversive consequence
  • Which one leads to more persistent learning? (Continuous vs partial reinforcement)

    Partial reinforcement leads to more persistent learning than continuous reinforcement
  • What is positive punishment?

    Exposure to an aversive event following a behaviour reduces the likelihood of the operant recurring
  • What is negative punishment?

    Not obtaining a reinforcer as a consequence of behaviour

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