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A snapshot of the summary - Research Methods: The essential knowledge base
1 Chapter 8. Introduction to Design - pages 206-221
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What are the different major types of research design?What are the different major types of research designs? You can classify designs into a simple threefold classification by asking some key questions. First, does the design use random assignment to groups? If random assignment is used, the design is a randomized experiment or true experiment. If random assignment is not used, ask a second question: Does the design use either multiple groups or multiple waves of measurement? If the answer is yes, label it as quasi-experimental design. If no, call it a nonexperimental design.
There are other ways than the research design that may be used to trule out interna validity threats. What does by preventive action?When potential threats are anticipated they can often be ruled out by some type of preventive action. For example, if the program is a desirable one, it is likely that the comparison group would feel jealous or demoralized. Several actions can be taken to minimize the effects of these attitudes including offering the program to the comparison group upon completion of the study or using program and comparison groups which have little opportunity for contact and communication. In addition, auditing methods and quality control can be used to track potential experimental dropouts or to insure the standardization of measurement.
There are other ways than the research design that may be used to trule out interna validity threats. What does by measurement means?In some cases it is possible to rule out a threat by measuring in and demonstrating that either it does not occur at all or occurs so minimally as to not be a strong alternative explanation for the cause-effect relationship.
Example: if you are studyin gthe effects of special mathematics training on math achievement scores of children, it might be useful to obsere everyday classroom behavior to verify that students were not receiving other math training in addition to what was provided in the study.
There are other ways than the research design that may be used to trule out interna validity threats. What does by argument means?THe most straightforward way to rule out a potential threat to validity is simply to make an argument that the threat in question is not a reasonable one. Such an argument may be made beforte the fact or after the fact. The former is more convincing than the latter.
There are other ways than the research design that may be used to rule out internal validity threats. Which 4?- By argument
- By measurement of observation
- By analysis
- By preventive action
CompensatorOne of the 4 major social interaction threats to internal validity: equalization of treatment
What does it mean?Compensatory equalization is a threat to the treatment construct validity in intervention studies, in which comparison groups not obtaining the preferredtreatment are provided with compensations that make the comparison groups more equal than originally planned.
One of the 4 major social interaction threats to internal validity: Resentful demoralization
What does it mean?Resentful demoralization is an issue in controlled experiments in which those in the control group become resentful of not receiving the experimental treatment. ... This may lead to significant systematic differences in the outcome of the control group, obscuring the results of the study and threatening their validity
One of the 4 major social interaction threats to internal validity: Compensatory rivalry
What does it meanCompensatory rivalry exists when the study group not receiving the experimental treatment (i.e., intervention) feels disadvantaged, disappointed, or left out and decides to obtain a similar intervention on its own. It may or may not involve intentional competition or rivalry with the experimental group.
One of the 4 major social interaction threats to internal validity: Diffusion or imitation of treatment
What does it mean?This occurs when a comparison group learns about the program either directly or indirectly from program group participants. In a school context, children from different groups within the same school might share experiences during lunch hour.
No Plausible Alternative ExplanationsAll other possible explanations for the effect need to be ruled out.
That there is a relationship does not mean that there is a causal one.
Suppose you measure the association between children's shoe size and their reading. In almost all cases you will find a positive relationship. But it is not the shoe size, but it's just that the child is getting older.
It's always possible that some other variable or factor is causing the outcome. This is sometimes referred as the third-variable or missing-variable problem
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