Summary: Risk Behaviour And Addiction

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Read the summary and the most important questions on Risk behaviour and addiction

  • 1 Lecture 1

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  • What we tend to regard as 'risk behaviours' depends on:

    Characteristics of the particalar substance or behaviour. E.g. Smoking vs gaming. For smoking integrated phase is already seen as addictive, but not for smoking

    Cultural and societal norms. E.g.  alcohol use in western vs. Islamic cultures

    Scientific knowledge: knowledge on the risks of alcohol use for the cognitive development of adolescents
  • Predictors of risk behaviour

    3 things influence behaviour.

    Capability, motivation and opportunity influence behaviour
  • What are psychoactive substances

    Chemical substances that cross the blood-brain barrier. and affect the function of the central nervous system thereby altering perception, mood, or consciousness

    Other characteristics:
    induce craving after use (with ciggaretts)
    evoke loss of control after they have been used (more difficult to control behaviour)
  • Two learning principles underlying the development of addiction:

    Positive reinforcement occurs when the rate of a behaviour increases because a desirable event (euphoria, relaxation) is resulting from the behaviour

    Negative reinforcement occurs when the rate of a behaviour increases because an aversive event is prevented from happening (prevention of withdrawal symptoms)
  • Why do we experience withdrawal symptoms

    Drug use > dopamine release > reward  >>>> brain adaption (the sensitivity of the reward system is decreasing)
  • The decrease in sensitivity of the brain reward system

    Reduction number of dopamine receptors
    Making the existing receptors less sensitive to dopamine

    Tolerance (needing more for same effect)
    Withdrawal symptoms (during abstinence)
    A reduced sensitivity to natural incentives (food, sex)
  • Motivation is explicit and implicit

    Explicit: self-reported (makkelijk te benoemen wat het is) and craving

    Implicit: *onbewust en moeilijk te benomen* 
    - Cue reactivity (when users are shown a picture of weed, the brain reacts)
    - Incentive salience
    - Cognitive biases (interaction between motivation & control)

    Incentive salience theory & associative learning
    1. Repeated use of drugs with rewarding outcome
    2. Drug cues get paired with this rewarding outcome
    3. Drug cues itself become salient because of psysical and mental paring with reward    

    Cognitive biases:  implicit and automatic cognitive processing of addiction related cues is altered 
    * Attentional bias 
    * Approach bias
  • Implicit and explicit in cannabis use

    Craving does increase cannabis use, attentional bias doesn't
  • 1.1 Sussman, A general introduction to the concept of addiction and addictive effects

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  • Explain substance and behavioral addiction

    Substance: repetitive intake of a drug (alcohol)
    Behavioral: engaging in types of behaviour repetitively which are not directly taken into the body (gambling)
  • Explain intensional and extensional conceptions of addiction

    Intensional: definitions aims to describe a causal addiction process

    Extensional: classifying characteristics of a drug (DSM5)

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