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A snapshot of the summary - Robbins Basic Pathology
2 Cell injury, Cell Death and Adaptations
2.1 Introduction to pathology
What is the difference between Etiology and Pathogenesis
Etiology refers to why a disease arises and pathogenesis describes how a disease develops
2.3 Causes of cell injury
What is the difference between Hypoxia and Ischemia?Hypoxia refers to oxygen deficiency and Ischemia refers to reduced blood supply
2.4 Sequence of events in cell injury and cell death
Why do cells and intracellular organelles typically become swollen in Reversible injuryBecause they take in
wateras a result of the failure of energy-dependent ion pumps ( Na-K- ATPase)
Name 3 common characterisations of irreversible cell injury1. inability to restore mitochondrial function
2. loss of structure and functions of the plasma membrane and intracellular membranes.
3. the loss of DNA and chromatin structural integrity.
Necrosis, the contents of the cell are leaked. These contents may cause further damage to the surrounding cells. How does your body react to this? Necrosis elicits inflammation, that is induced by substances
released from dead cells and which serves to eliminate the debris and start the subsequent repair process.
enzymesresponsible for digestion of the cell are derived from lysosomesand may come from the dying cells themselves or from leukocytesrecruited as part of the inflammatoryreaction.
Name a characteristic cause of Coagulative necrosis
infarcts (areas of necrosis caused by ischemia) in all solid organs except the brain.
What is characteristic for
Dead cells are completely digested, transforming the tissue into
a viscous liquid that is eventually removed by phagocytes. Often it is associated with focal bacterial or fungal infections E.g. Brain infarct
What is characteristic for Caseous necrosisOften caused by TB, 'Cheeselike'
What is characteristic for Fibrinoid necrosisIt is a special form. occurs in immune reactions in which complexes of antigens and antibodies are deposited in the walls of blood vessels. This causes a bright pink, amorphous appearance.
Which pathway of apoptosis is resposible for in most physiologic and pathologic situationsThe mitochondrial (intrinsic) pathway