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Summary Samenvatting Human Infecious Diseases

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  • What is a virus?
    The smallest genetic entities. 
    A piece of genetic information with a protein coat that hijacks' the host cells and replicates itself
  • What are the 3 main characteristics of viruses?
    1. Infectivity 
      • penetrate and multiply in host cell 
    2. Obligate intracellular parasite 
      • cannot replicate by itself, no protein synthesizing machinery or energy producing machinery 
    3. property to survive outside a living cell in an extracellular state 
      • in an inert state or via carrier, depends on environment 
  • A virus is composed of
    • Nucleic acid 
      • RNA or DNA 
      • SS or DS 
      • segmented or non segmented 
    • protein shell 
      • assembled form smaller subunits: coat proteins 
    • lipid membrane / viral envelope 
      • some viruses
      • made from host cell 
  • All viral RNA genomes are __1__ (linear/circular) except for __2__
    1 = Linear
    2 = viroids
  • The properties of the viral genetic material depends on
    The family to which the virus belongs
  • The minimal virus needs the 2 genes:
    1. DNA/RNA-polymerase
      • multiplication of RNA or DNA genome 
    2. coat protein
      • protection and host interaction 
  • The viral genomes varies between (nucleotideS)
    2,000 - 1,000,000
  • What is mutation rate
    The number of necleotides per 1000 nt of genome length that mutate per year
  • What affects the mutation rate?
    • The nature of the genetic material 
      • RNA viruses mutate quicker than DNA viruses
    • number of generation per year 
  • Why do RNA viruses mutate quicker than DNA viruses
    DNA polymerase has proofreading whereas RNA polymerase doesn't

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