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Summary Samenvatting

- Medical Embryology
- Kolk
- 2021 - 2022
- Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen
- Biologie
119 Flashcards & Notes
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A snapshot of the summary - Samenvatting

  • 1 Cleavage

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  • What are the two main patterns of cleavage?
    Holoblastic (complete) and meroblastic (incomplete) cleavage.
  • What are the 4 forms of holoblastic (complete) isolethical (sparce, evenly distributed yolk) cleavage?
    1. Radial cleavage (stekelhuidigen (zoals see urchin) & amphioxus (=lancetvisje)
    2. Spiral cleavage (annelids (=ringwormen), mollusks (=weekdieren), flatworms) 
    3. Bilateral cleavage (tunicates (=manteldieren))
    4. Rotational cleavage (zoogdieren, nematoden)
  • What are the types of meroblastic cleavage?
    Telolethical (dense yolk throughout most of cell)
    1. Bilaterial cleavage (cephalopod molluscs (=inktvis))
    2. Discoidal cleavage (fish, reptiles, birds)

    Centrolecithal (yolk in center of egg): superficial cleavage (most insects)
  • 2 Gastrulation and blastulation

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  • What are the three germ layers?
    Ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm
  • What are the 5 types of morphogenic rearrangements and explain them
    Invagination: infolding of a region of cells
    involution: inward movement of an expanding outer layer
    ingression: migration of individual cells from the surface layer into the inferior of the embryo
    Delamination: splitting of one cellular sheet into two more or less parallel sheets. 
    Epiboly: movement of epithelial sheets, usually of extodermal cells, that spread as a unit to enclose the deeper layers of the embryo.
  • 3 Neurulation

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  • What will eventually form from endoderm?
    The digestive and pulmonary system
  • What will eventually form from mesoderm?
    Bones, some of the inner layers of the skin, urinary system, reproductive system and muscles (including cardiac muscle)
  • What are the steps in the neurulation process?
    Formation neural plate - folding (neural fold) - elevation neural crest (neural groove) - convergence (neural folds apposing) - Neural tube - migration neural crest cells.
  • What types of mesoderm are there and what are they responsible for?
    Intermediate mesoderm: kidney and gonads (geslachtsklieren)
    Chorda-mesoderm: notochord
    paraxial mesoderm: head & somites --> somites form sclerotome (cartilage), syndrotome (tendons), myotome (skeletal musle), endothelial cells and dermatome (dermis, skeletal muscle)
    Laterial plate mesoderm: splanchnic (circulatory system), somatic (body cavity) & extraembryonic
  • 4 Cell specification, determination and morphogenesis

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  • Explain the term 'cell specification'
    During early development, an embryonic cell is set on a path of molecular changes. It becomes comitted to certain fates, and passes through the following stages: specification --> determination --> differentiation.
    Cell specification is a term for the phenomenon of the embryonic cell being capable to differentiate autonomously when it is placed in a neutral environment. This means that there is something instinsic to the embryonal cell that makes sure it can specify.

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