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Summary Samenvatting Oncology

- Oncology
- Doubrava-Simmer
- 2021 - 2022
- Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen
- Medical Biology
94 Flashcards & Notes
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A snapshot of the summary - Samenvatting oncology

  • 1 Cancer epidemiology

    This is a preview. There are 8 more flashcards available for chapter 1

  • Why is epidemiology important in cancer?
    To gain knowledge about trends in incidence, survival and mortality in cancer
  • What are the key concepts in epidemiology?
    Prevalence, incidence, mortality and relative survival
  • Explain the term 'grey pressure'
    They pressure is a number calculated by dividing the #people of 65+ by the #people aged 20 - 64. This double ageing phenomenon van lead to an enormous public health problem --> more and more people get cancer.
  • Why is the most important risk factor of cancer age?
    Due to the accumulation of damage or mutations in regulatory genes, age plays a role in this since time is needed for this accumulation of damage to daughter cells. Also, there is more damage to repair tools and less control by the micro-environment.
  • What are the different ways to identify the causes of cancer?
    Accidental finding, systematic counting and focused research (case control and prospective cohort studies).
  • What can be calculated using PAF (population attributable fraction)?
    The proportion of incidents in the population that are attributable to the risk factor. So looking of a cancer can be prevented by for example not smoking, avoiding overweight and eating healthy.
  • 2 The role of pathology in diagnosis and treatment of cancer

    This is a preview. There are 11 more flashcards available for chapter 2

  • What are the 10 hallmarks of cancer
    Sustaining proliferative signaling
    Evading growth suppressors 
    Avoiding immune destruction
    Enable replicative immortality
    Tumor-promoting inflammation
    Activating invasion & metastasis
    Inducing angiogenesis
    Genome instability & mutation
    Resisting cell death
    Deregulating cellular energetics
  • How can a mistake in the mismatch repair system cause cancer?
    Normally, the mismatch repair system detect mismatches occuring during replication of microsatelittes. After excision of the mismatch there is re-synthesis of the DNA stand using the MSH2/MSH6 complex. A deficiency in this complex can result in microsatellite instability.
  • Which two types of genomic instability are there in colorectal cancer (CRC)?
    Chromosomal instability (CIN) and microsatellite instability (MSI). CIN is often caused by problems in cell separation, like chromosomal abnormalities. MSI is often involved in pathways with a BRAF mutation, an aberrant mutation in CRC
  • What are driver mutations?
    Driver mutations confer a selective advantage on the cell, and can be linked to cancer phenotypes. This type of mutation causes an advantage on the cell and can thereby start a tumor.
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