Summary: Samenvattingen Hap

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  • 1 L15 digestive systems and foraging behaviour

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  • To what dose the evolution of alimentary system lead? And to what are the cells specialized?

    To extracellular digestion. Cells lining the lumen of alimentary canal are specialized in forming enzymes for absorption
  • Into what 5 regions are alimentary canals devided?

    1. Reception
    2. conduction and storage
    3. grinding and early digestion
    4. terminal digestion and absorption
    5. water absorption and concentration solids
  • What is the process from food to chyme?

    1. Food is released in duodenum, regulated by pyoric sphincter.
    2. pancreatic juices and bile are added (bicarbonate neutralizes acid)
    3. food is not chyme
  • Function and properties of bile

    • Bile is secreted via bile duct into duodenum.  
    • made by the liver
    • collected in gall bladder
    • contains water and bile salts
    • is needed for fat digestion, reduces surface tension
    • yellow color comes from bile pigments, when breakdown of haemoglobin --> faeces color
  • Function and properties pancreatic juice components

    Contains important digestive enzymes

    Proteases: trypsin and chymotrypsin spit peptide bonds  

    Carboxypeptidase removes amino acids from polypeptides

    pancreatic lipase: hydrolyses fats into fatty acids and glycerol

    pancreatic amylase: starch splitting enzyme = salivary amylase

    nucleases: degrade RNA and DNA to nucleotides
  • Membrane enzymes functions and properties:

    Aminopeptidase: splits terminal amino acids from the amino end of short peptides

    Disaccharides: maltase, sucrase, lactase

    Alkaline phosphatase: attacks a variety of phosphate compounds

    Nucleotidases: continue breakdown of nucleotides into nucleosides etc.
  • What 4 things are mainy absorbed in the stomach, instead of the small intestine?

    Glucose, lidid-soluble drugs and alcohol
  • What are lacteals and to what process does it contribute?

    Lacteals are lymphatic capilaries that are located in vili of the small intestine.

    fatty acids and triglycerides diffuse into the lacteals and the fat droplets then enter the bloodstream
  • What is the region of water absorption and concentration of solids?

    The large intestine. Specialized rectal glands absorb water and ions. 

    A lot of bacteria in the colon degrade organic wastes and synthesize certain vitamins (K and B)
  • What are the temporary set of teeth called?

    Deciduous teeth

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