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Summary Science, Business and Policy

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A snapshot of the summary - Science, Business and Policy

  • 2 Technology

  • 2.2.2 The power of technology

  • Why is there a debate about technology?
    People are afraid that technologies control us, on a personal, cultural or economical way
  • What are the 4 relationships between humans and technology?
    1. Technology to exploit the world directly (glasses)
    2. Technology to exploit the world indirectly (x-ray image, more knowledge needed)
    3. Technology as part of the environment (CD player)
    4. Technology in the background (traffic light)
  • 2.3 Embeddedness of technology

  • What are the three levels of technological innovation?
    1. Niche level (development of concepts; idea for practical use)
    2. Socio-technological system (system needed to bring the concept on the market)
    3. Macro-level (cultural and physical characteristics of society)
  • Why are most innovations incremental (gradual)?
    Systems are stabilized through numerous kinds of factors
  • What is an incremental innovation?
    • Feature improvement
    • Cost reduction

    Of products within existing business models and current markets
  • When is a radical innovation possible?
    When the innovation complement political, cultural and economic changes, resulting in new regime conventions and the involvement of these actors
  • 2.3.2 Stages of innovation

  • What are the 5 stages of innovation development?
    1. Scientific research
    2. Technological research
    3. Product development
    4. Market introduction
    5. Societal diffusion
  • What happens in the technological research stage regarding innovation?
    Scientists explore different technological variants
  • What happens in the product development stage of an innovation?
    The concept will be connected to
    • Marketing
    • General strategies
    • Organisation issues
    • Demands of retailers, suppliers and end users
  • Why will an innovation gradually lose its flexibility?
    An innovation gets connected to
    • Rules
    • Societal parties
    • Branding
    • Infrastructures (spoor)
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