8 good questions and answers: "Dating - Dating methods chart - How it works"

Annual cycles (how it works)
Variation on basis of yearly seasonal processes
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Varve chronology (how it works)
Yearly erosion and sedimentation depending on yearly conditions
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Ice layer counting (how it works)
  • Growth of firn basin depending on yearly processes
    • Firn = combination of snow/ice, especially on the upper part of a glacier
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Milankovitch cycles (how it works)
  • Insulation (isolatie) variation on earth due to varying orbital parameters
  • Forcing of ice sheets
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Cosmogenic nuclides (how it works)
  • Nuclides formed by cosmic radiation in the atmosphere or on the surface of the planet
  • Unstable
  • Decay fast to a more stable daughter
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U-Th / U-series (how it works)
  • Radioactive uranium-234 is water-soluble and can be deposited in any mineral formed from any form of water
  • Decays overtime to various daughter isotopes, which are not water-soluble and therefore stay in the mineral
  • The uranium/daughter product ratio is then used to measure the time since the uranium was first deposited
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K-Ar and Argon-Argon (how it works)
  • Radioactive/unstable K (or induced Ar) occurs in certain minerals
  • Decays over time to the more stable isotope Ar
  • Decay shows a time-dependant relationship
    • Time is estamated through measuring the parent/daughter ratio within the minerals studied
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Optically Stimulated Luminescence (how it works)
  • Decay of unstable elements causes a shift in electron position within a sample, resulting in a build-up energy that can be released by optical stimulation
  • The light irradiated by the sample upon this release (called relexation) is proportional to the build-up energy caused by the decay process, which is time dependant
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