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Summary Social Affective Neurosciences

Course
- Social Affective Neurosciences (Felix)
- Timo Stein
- 2019 - 2020
- Universiteit van Amsterdam
- Psychologie
206 Flashcards & Notes
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A snapshot of the summary - Social Affective Neurosciences

  • Lecture 1 - History of Emotions 1

  • How are emotions different from basic drives?
    Basic drives reflect needs of the body.
    Emotions are responses to external stimuli
  • What are the 7 accepted components of emotions?
    - Response to stimulus
    - Judgement of a stimulus
    - Physiological 
    - Motivation
    - Motor expression
    - Feelings
  • What was Herbet Spencer's modern view of emotions?
    Highlighting the links between cognition, emotion & memory
    - Different sides of the same psychical phenomena
    -  No cognition without emotion, no emotion without cognition
  • What did Charles Darwin show about emotions?
    - Physical expression of emotion in humans & animals (most objective measure)

    - Emtions are innate:  Emotional expressions are similar across cultures & species

    - Some emotions in adults still useful tohers not (crying, gaze aversion in shame)
  • How was the universality of facial expressions studies (Ekman & Friesen)?
    Papua New Guineans: Isolated tribe
    - No written language
    - No photo's, outsiders, magazines or television

    Let them match face in photograph & tell short emotional stories.
    They were able to express alot of the same emotional of westerners --> Universality
  • Can emotions be just innate? (universal, same responses etc.)
    Emotional experience & expression varies between situation, people & cultures.

    But:
    - Basic theories explain this with modification through learning & development
  • What is the James-Lange bodily theory of emotions?
    Emotions are accompanied by changes in the body.
    - Changes in autonomic nervous system 

    James-Lange: Stimulus --> bodily response --> Feeling

    (Bodily changes influence our sensory cortex)
  • What are problems with the James-Lange theory of emotions?
    Specificity
    Latency
  • What is Damasio's somatic marker theory?
    Somatic markers: Bodily changes in response to a stimulus (muscle tonus, posture, facial, hormones etc.)

    - Somatic markers transmitted to the brain are transformed into emotions

    - Emotions & somatic markers become associated with stimulus.

    Conclusions:
    - Emotions can guide adaptive behaviour
    - Loop: Brain can anticipate bodily changes --> No need to wait for actual changes to happen
  • What is the difference between Arnol'ds cognitive Appraisal theory and & basic emotion theories? And the difference with James-Lange theory?
    Arnold: Stimulus --> Appraisal --> Emotion --> Action

    Inconsistent with basic emotion theories: Context can alter which emotion is experienced     

    Inconsistent with James: Emotions are not the perception of bodily changes but depend on interpretation of situation
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