Summary: Stress, Gezondheid En Ziekte

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Read the summary and the most important questions on Stress, gezondheid en ziekte

  • 1 Week 1 introduction: stress Response and Evolution

  • 1.1.1 stress definitions

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  • What are immediate subjective stress responses?

    Psychological: 
    - negative emotions: anger, anxiety, depression. 
    - tense 
    - insecure 
    - vigilant (keeping careful watch for possible danger or difficulties) 
    - confused 
    - panic 

    Bodily: 
    - heart palpitations 
    - sweating, gooseflesh 
    - muscles contract 
    - beraming speeds up 
    - dry mouth 
    - tremble, shiver 
    - nauseous, stomachache, diarrhea
    - anting 
    - fright or disturbed 
  • 1.1.5 explaination

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  • What is adversity (a difficult or unpleasant situation) as a type of threat?

    Physical: direct threat by
    - pyshical integrity by e.g. Cold, heat, toxins, infections, (via immune system), bleeding, violence (predators or intra- species), hunger, thirst, echaustion, sleep deprivation.
    psychologieval: preceived threat of
    - physical integrity by physical adversity
    - psychological integrity:  security/safety; belongingness/intimicy/sex; autonomy/prestige; (only humans: ‘self actualisation’?)
    For humans threat = often social: exclusion/ social exclusion
  • 2 Week 2 stress and disease: who falls ill and from which stress?

  • 2.2 type of stressors

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  • What are the different types of stressors?

    - Psychological trauma's --> primarily psychopathological effects 
    - life changes/ life events 
    - daily hassles 
    - chronic stressors 
  • What are examples of life changes/ life events?

    Dead of child or spouse/partner 
    ...or other close family / friend 
    Divorce 
    Marriage 
    Cheating partner 
    Serious illness family member 
    Personal injury or illness 
    Pregnancy 
    Gain a new family member 
    Sexual difficulties 
    Being fired from a job 
    Retirement 
    Financial or property loss 
    Legal difficulties 
    Prison sentence
  • What are examples of daily hassles?

    Important items lost 
    Disagreement with your neighbours 
    Too many social obligations 
    Some people did ignore you 
    Family member has health complaints 
    You wanted something you can not afford financially 
    You had to take over annoying tasks from others 
    Your night’s rest was disturbed 
    You had to take difficult decisions 
    You had a conflict with colleagues 
    You were being ridiculed in company 


    examples of contemporary problems: 
    Smartphone battery dead 
    Fear Of Missing Out (FOMO)
    Too many e-mails
  • Why are daily hassles so stressful?

    They are uncontrollable and un predictable 

    accumulation of daily problems (= many experiences of uncontrollability) 
  • What is ment by that daily hassles can be a mediator of effect of life events and of chronic stress?

    Because of a divorce you have a lot of daily hassles that stress you (what to do with the kids during Christmas, what to do with the house etc. ) same with chronic stress, affecting your daily hassles.
  • What are examples of chronic stressors?

    Low social economic status (SES) 
    Environmental stress (e.g from traffic; neighbors) 
    Work stress 
    Marital stress (low quality relationships) 
    Caregiving (for e.g. spouse with Altzheimer) 
    Psychopathological conditions: anxiety disorders, depression, PTSD, OCD etc. = chronic stress responses
  • What is the Chronic stressor nr 1?

    Low social economic status (SES)
    combinations of low income, occupation, housing, conditions and education

    With every step on the SES ladder your disease risk drops 
    --> SES is a health gradient 

    …. Only partly due to reduced accessibility of health care, lower intelligence, less healthy life style (only 1/3 disease risk explained) etc.. 
  • What is an example of SES- health gradient?

    Example of low SES – health gradient: * “…across the countries of Europe, socioeconomic status accounts for 68 percent of the variance as to who gets a stroke.” (Sapolsky) 

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