Summary: Systems Engineering

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  • 2 Systems Thinking

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  • ! Was ist ein System? Welche Bestandteile hat das System?

    A combination of interacting elements organized to achieve one or more stated purposes. 
    An integrated set of elements, subsystems, or assemblies that accomplish a defined objective. These elements include products (software, hardware, firmware), processes, people, information, techniques, facilities, services & other support elements.

    System means...
    • A closed composition of related parts/elements
    • Every system is a collection of parts/elements
    • Parts/elements are a collection of functions and attributes
      => Parts/elements can also be small systems
    • Relations are exchanges of information or material resources between parts or systems
    • Systems can be defined as subsystems and general systems
  • ! Was ist ein SOI?

    System of Interest (SOI), the system whose lifestyle is under consideration
  • ! Was ist ein System of Systems? What are the challenges for the development of SOS?

    System of systems applies to a system‐of‐interest whose system elements are themselves systems; typically these entail large scale inter‐disciplinary problems with multiple, heterogeneous, distributed systems.

    By working together the systems generate greater benefits than by the use of every system on its own. 

    • system elements operate independently
    • system elements have different life cycles
    • the initial requirements are likely to be ambiguous (mehrdeutig)
    • complexity is a major issue
    • management can overshadow engineering
    • fuzzy (unscharfe) boundaries cause confusion
    • SoS engineering is never finished 
  • Was ist ein (System) Element?

    • a member of a set of elements that constitutes a system
    • a major product, service, or facility of the system, e.g. the aircraft element of an air transportation system
  • What is a blackbox?

    • The blackbox is a useful tool for focusing on effort & result of a (modern) system to reduce the complexity.
    • The system or systems inside the blackbox are faded out (ausblenden).
  • What is a whitebox?

    • If the relations between effort and result are important the view is called Whitebox-System.
    • Effort and Result are less important than the step between them.
    • These systems are often signed with a high complexity.
  • What is a greybox?

    A greybox is a blackbox with certain subsystems or parts which are viewed like in a whitebox.
  • ! Was ist das Systemumfeld? Welches Modell wird hierbei verwendet?

    • Eine Systemgrenze ist eine beliebig oder absichtlich ausgewählte Grenze zwischen System und seinem Umfeld.
    • Die Systemgrenze definiert das System of Interest (SOI).
    => Eine angemessene Systemgrenze festzulegen ist eine der wichtigsten Aufgaben eines Systems Engineers.
    • System Borders are made to separate a system from its environment or other systems
    • System Borders are always created by the point of view on a system
      => Borders can vary if aspects of the systems are changed
    • Many systems have relations to its environment (open system)
    • Relations are occurring more often inside a system than to parts outside of the system 

    => Umfeldmodell
  • 2.1 System Views

  • Welche Sichten und Standpunkte gibt es?

    different view point have different system views
  • 3 System Life Cycle

  • 3.1 (System) Life Cycle

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  • ! Was bedeutet Systems Integrity? Wie baut sich der Lebenszyklus auf?

    System integrity requires that these 3 aspects are in balance and given equal emphasis (Gleichgewicht) at all decision gate reviews.

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