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A snapshot of the summary - The development of the nation state : France 1498-1610
1.1 Strength of renaissance kingship under Francis I (change)
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What was the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges of 1438?
An agreement between the King and the Pope allowing cathedral chapters to elect bishops and abbots independently. This governed the relationship between Church and state.
How far did the Concordat of Bologna (1516) increase the power of the Crown?
far - it gave Francis unprecedented control over the French Church as he was able to legally nominate candidates directly for vacant bishoprics and to fill vacancies in abbeys and monasteries.
- Parlements were virtually forced to agree to the concordat despite opposing royal authority. Through threats and intimidation, Francis exerted his power upon the parlement of Paris.
limited - monarchical control over appointments had been steadily growing over the previous century = the concordat merely officialised the process.
Who were the most significant members in the Circle of Meaux? What happened in 1523?
Lefevre and Briconnet. In 1523, Lefevre published a French translation of the Gospels and the entire New Testament. Also in 1523, Briconnet is charged with heresy.
How radical was the Circle of Meaux?
They were no threat to the crown - men such as Lefevre were trying to reinvigorate Catholicism.
What happened in 1525 concerning the Circle of Meaux?
Royal protection preserved the circle until 1525 when Francis was held captive after the French defeat in Pavia, leaving his mother in charge. The Sorbonne dissolved the circle and Lefevre was forced to flee to Strasbourg. Briconnet stood trial but was saved by the return of Francis in 1526.
What differed between Francis I and the Sorbonne in terms of religious policy?
Their outlook on what was considered heresy. Francis was not a Protestant sympathiser or even a convinced evangelical, but he was not allowing the Sorbonne to dictate religious policy as the Circle of Meaux enlightened him. He let Lefevre tutor the royal children.
What statue was damaged in 1528 and by who?
the Virgin Mary was deliberately damaged by radical iconoclasts in Paris. - the number of Protestants in France were low but sporadic events kept authorities on guard.
What group of people became more extreme during the 1520s and what tension did this create?
Protestant sympathisers became more extreme but Francis still sought to protect the intellectual reform movement of the Humanists. This meant the tensions between the Sorbonne, the parlement of Paris and Francis grew.
Who was Louis de Berquin and why was he proved guilty in his trial in 1528?
He was an original member in the Circle of Meaux. He stood trial before a jury which ought to have been sympathetic towards him as it was appointed by the Pope under orders from Francis I. However, the King was out of Paris so the Sorbonne bullied Clement VII into removing the commissioners and a new, more conservative group was appointed. Berquin was burned in 1529.
Who was Nicholas Cop and why was he forced to flee to Switzerland?
He criticised the persecution of evangelicals and endorsed the preaching of the gospel. The Sorbonne linked Cop's sermon to Lefevre and Luther, and so he fled for his life to Switzerland.
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