Summary: Veterinary And Human Immunology

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  • A standard treatment of animal bite victims, when there is a possibility that the animal was infected with the rabies virus, is administration of human immunoglobulin preparations containing anti-rabies virus antibodies. Which type of immunity would be established by this treatment?A. Active humoral immunityB. Passive humoral immunityC. Active cell-mediated immunityD. Passive cell-mediated immunityE. Innate immunity

    B. Passive humoral immunity
  • At 15 months of age, a child received a measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR). At age 22, she is living with a family in Mexico that has not been vaccinated and she is exposed to measles. Despite the exposure, she does not become infected. Which of the following properties of the adaptive immune system is best illustrated by this scenario?A. SpecificityB. DiversityC. SpecializationD. MemoryE. Self tolerance

    D. Memory
  • A vaccine administered in the autumn of one year may protect against the prevalent strain of influenza virus that originated in Hong Kong that same year, but it will not protect against another strain of influenza virus that originated in Russia. This phenomenon illustrates which property of the adaptive immune system?A. SpecificityB. Loss of memoryC. SpecializationD. Cultural diversityE. Self-tolerance

    A. Specificity
  • Which of the following can be accurately called a cytokine?A. A cell surface antigne receptor on lymphocyteB. An antibody secreted by a B cellC. A protein secreted by a T lymphocyte that activates a macrophageD. A lipid secreted by a Natural Killer cell that activates a B cellE. A nuclear protein that regulates lymphocyte gene expression

    C. A protein secreted by a T lymphocyte that activates a macrophage
  • According to the clonal selection hypothesis, which of the following is correct?A. Lymphocyte specificity is determined by exposure to an antigenB. Clones of lymphocytes specific for antigens develop prior to exposure to the antigensC. Antigen binding to a lymphocyte receptor selects that lymphocyte to dieD. Antigen binding to secreted antibody stimulates proliferation of the B cell that secreted the antibodyE. Each clone of lymphocytes express receptors for many different antigens

    B. Clones of lymphocytes specific for antigens develop prior to exposure to the antigens
  • Which of the following cell types is a phagocyteA. Plasma cellB. NeutrophilC. Mast cellD. Natural killer cellE. T lymphocyte

    B. Neutrophil
  • A 52-year-old man who receives radiation therapy and cytotoxic drugs for treatment of cancer sustains significant damage to his bone marrow. Which of the following changes will most likely occur?A. Decreased production of monocytes but not B lymphocytesB. Decreased production of B lymphocytes but not T lymphocytesC. Decreased production of neutrophils and monocytes but not B lymphocytesD. Decreased production of B and T lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils and red blood cellsE. Normal production of all blood cells due to compensatory extramedullary hematopoiesis

    D. Decreased production of B and T lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils and red blood cells
  • In DiGeorge syndrome, the thymus fails to develop. Which of the following characterizes the immunodeficiency state in this syndrome?A. Deficiency in monocytes and tissue macrophages B. Defect in naive B cell activation and antibody production in response to bacterial polysaccharides C. Deficiency in T lymphocytes and associated defects in cell-mediated immunityD. Normal numbers of naive T cells that cannot be activated by antigenE. Deficiency in B cell maturation

    C. Deficiency in T lymphocytes and associated defects in cell-mediated immunity
  • Tissue macrophages are derived from which type of circulating blood cell?A. Polymorphonuclear leukocyteB. Small lymphocyteC. MonocyteD. BasophilE. Lymphoblast

    C. Monocyte
  • A 5-year-old boy with recurrent infections is discovered to have a genetic defect that impairs B cell maturation. Which of the following abnormalities is most likely to be found in this patient?A. Small thymusB. Absence of follicles in lymph nodes and spleenC. Enlarged tonsilsD. Diminished parafollicular zones in lymph nodesE. Hypocellular bone marrow

    B. Absence of follicles in lymph nodes and spleen
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