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Summary Veterinary Immunology

- Ian Tizard
ISBN-10 1455703621 ISBN-13 9781455703623
416 Flashcards & Notes
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A snapshot of the summary - Veterinary Immunology Author: Ian Tizard ISBN: 9781455703623

  • 1 The Defence of the body

  • Difference between adaptive and innate
    - in the way they recognize pathogens
    - innate system -> binds molecules commonly expressed on many different microbes
    - adaptive system -> generates a lot of completely new receptors  that can bind a wild array of foreign moleculs 
    - bacteria and viruses require different systems because one originates outside the body and the other inside the body's own cells.
  • 2 Innate Immunity: The Recognition of Invaders

  • C-type lectin receptors
    - proteins that bind carbohydrates in a calcium dependent manner
    - many different types of lectins
    - some are cell surface PRRs
  • 3 Innate Immunity: Proinflammatory and Antimicrobial Mediators

  • Damaged tissue generates
    - broken cells realease DAMPs
    - invading microbes provides PAMPs
    - pain due to tissue damage -> sensory nerves release bioactvice peptides

    -> This mixture attracts leukocytes and acts on blood vessels
  • PAMPs or DAMPs bind to PRRs
    -> mediator molecules (also called cytokines) are releases by signaling cells
    -> mediator cells bind to receptors on receiving cells
    -> triggers their respons
  • 4 innate immunity: neutrophils and phagocytosis

  • Prime function of inflammation
    - to ensure that phagocytic cells intercept invading microbes and destroy them
  • 5 innate immunity: Macrophages and recovery from inflammation

  • Fate of foreign material
    - which macrophages an animal uses depends on the animal
    - rate of immune elimination depends on whether or not the body has encountered the foreign before
    - foreign material in tissue -> inflammation -> dentritic cells and macrophages initiate an adaptive immune response 
    - patricles that enter the blood from the intestines are removed by macrophages in the liver- particles that enter the lympatic system will be trapped in lymph nodes  - particles absorbed in the lungs are cleared to lymph nodes
  • 6 systematic repsonses to inflammation

  • Il1, IL6 and TNF-alpha
    - induce skeletal muscle -> increase protein catabolism -> releases amino acids
    - free amino acids are used to make cytokines and antibodies + increase protein synthesis and secretion in the liver  
  • Systemic inflammatory response syndrome
    - SIRS = after massive tissue damage DAMPs escape into the bloodstream -> sentinel cells produce cytokines -> results in acidosis -> possibly lethal shock
  • Protein misfolding disease
    Amyloidosis = buildup of insoluble protein (amyloid) in tissue due to wrong folding

    - reactive amyloid is associated with chronic inflammation
  • 7 innate immunity: The complement system

  • Other consequences of complement activation
    - opsonization
    - promoting post inflammatory healing by removal of apoptotic cells
    - inflammation
    - blood coagulation (stolling)
    - chemotaxis
    - immune regulation
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