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Summary Water

- Chemistry
- Janneke
- 2015 - 2016
- Metameer - Stevensbeekseweg (Stevensbeek)
- Klas 3 VWO TTO
112 Flashcards & Notes
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A snapshot of the summary - Water

  • 1 Water reserves

  • In which states can water be found on earth?
    it, is next to sulfur, during the eruption of a volcano, the only substance found on earth in three different states of matter, solid (ice), liquid (water), and gaseous (water vapour) 
  • How many water is there estimated to be on earth?
    around 1.4 billion cubic kilometres. This amount of litres equals the number 14 followed by twenty zeros!
  • What is the distribution of all fresh water?
    69% glaciers an permanent snowpacks
    30% fresh ground water
    0.3% fresh water in lakes and rivers 
    0.9% remaining fresh water, such as water in the soil, ice/caps permafrost and marshes 
  • What is the global sediment of rain and snow on earth?
    113.000 km2 of water
  • So what amount of fresh water is really available for animals, plants and people?
    at most between 9,000 and 14,000 km3 
  • If we compare the amount of water of 1994 to 1974 how has it decreased per person?
    there is only half the amount of water available per person.
  • How many of the population does not have the fulfill they need?
    one fifth
  • What will happen with water during  the course of the century?
    it will become the scarcest natural resource for the production of food and for human consumption. 80% of the water we need is used for agriculture, the industry and the production of energy. Not efficient, less than half used effectively.
  • What can we do to improve the efficient use of water in a certain area or to increase supplies. 
    - use more economically. We can do with far less water, irrigate farmland more efficiently
    -build flood control dams and reservoirs for storing rainwater. 
    -surface water may be sourced from a different area, but the cost of transportation is very high.
    -you can drill for ground water, but after a while the soil may dry out
    -science enables us to win fresh water form salty water (desalination)
  • 2 Water a very special substance

  • What are the four properties of water?
    1. density 
    2. specific heat capacity
    3. High boiling point
    4. Dissolving capacity 
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