Summary: Water

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Read the summary and the most important questions on water

  • 5 water

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  • 5.3 The hydrological cycle influences water budgets and river systems at a local scale

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  • There are two types of river Regimes?

    1. A simple regime - Periods of high discharge followed by low discharge this can be due to glacial meltwater, snowmelt or monsoons which cause sudden flucations in the river regime.
    2. A complex regime - are normaly large rivers which cross diffrent reliefes and climate zones (ganges)
  • What does a water budget show?

    They show the annual balance between inputs (percipitaion) and outputs (evapotranspiration) and their imapct on soil water avaliablity and are influnced by climate type.
  • Physical factors affecting the river regime

    1.  Size - smaller rivers tend to be influnced by one thing/climate

    2. Amount/intensity/pattern of ppt
    - alot of rain will make your rivers high all year around
    - If your ppt falls as snow then it your regime might be close to zero before summer

    3. Geology - a river over permable rock tend
    to be more steady as if it isn't raining ground water might fill them up

    4. Vegeatation cover

    5. Anthropogenic( human) activities - building a dam
  • How does human interference in the water cycle affect water avalibaility?

    • Pumping ground water for industry - reduces stores - less water avalibale for the locals (in kerela water tables have fallen by 6m due to coca cola)
    • Animal grazing - redruces infiltraion as groundwater comes compacted therfore less ground water stores - less water avaliable
    • Dams - block river flow - less water availbel downstream (Faraka dam in India reduced flow of Ganges into Bangladesh from 2000m3/sec - 400)
  • Guadiana river Regime

    • Located in Portugal and spain
    • flows tend to be higher in winter (500-700m3 a second)
    • In summer it is much lower (as low as 200m3/sec)
  • Rhone river Regime

    • Has a single peak in June where it flows at about 1000m3/sec but usually flows at 200m3/sec
    • Glacier fed river so the melting of the glacier gives a high peak 
  • Amazon River regime

    • Located in South America 
    • Flat peak due to it having such a large river basin and the wet season lasts for longer as it happens in different countries at different times
  • Yukon river Regime

    • Virtually no flow from December to may as all precipitation falls as snow 
    • In may the flow increases as the snow and ice melt
  • How many glaciers have disappeared since 1985

  • 5.4 Deficitis within the global hydroligical cycle result from physical processes but can have significant impacts

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  • How many people rely on groundwater for drinking

    3 million people

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